What is Paint I Composition/Ingredients of Paint-Loksewa Exams

In this post, You will know about Definitions of Paint, Characteristics of Good Paint, and Composition/Ingredients of Paint. In Public Service Commission Exam, generally, Questions are coming from this topic.

Important message for Reader: Highlighted/Bold text is important for Loksewa exams but in my opinion, please go through all the points discussed below. I hope you like it. If you want a pdf of this article. Please do email in below comment box.

What is Paint?

Paint is a substance which is applied over the surface of wood, metal or plaster surface prevents from weather effect, heat, moisture or gases, etc in order to enhance aesthetic and appearance.

Characteristics of Good paint

  • The paint should dry very quickly.
  • It should be stick properly with the surface.
  • The paint should be durable.
  • No cracks should occur when it’s dry.
  • Able to resist weather effects.
  • It should have a good consistency.

Composition/Ingredients of Paint


  • It is the main body of the Paint because it makes the surface harder and more resistant to weathering action.
  • Base reduces the Shrinkage cracks and hence durability will increase.
  • It acts as a protection layer.
  • Main Principal constituents of Paints.
  • Examples of Base are Zinc White (For Wood Work), White Lead (For Woodwork), Red Lead (For both Wood & Iron Surface), Oxides of Iron, Titanium White, Antimony White, Aluminum Powder, Lithopone, etc.

Read More About Base in Paint and Also Know about the function of various types of Base used in Paint:

Base in Paint-Function of White Lead I Red Lead I Zinc White I Lithophone

Vehicles/Binders/Carrier of Paint/Drying Oil

  • It holds the paint together as well as binds it to the surface that is painted.
  • Gives the Property of durability.
  • It is also called Binders or Carrier of Paints.
  • It acts as a Binder of Base & Pigment.
  • Examples of Vehicles are Linseed Oil, Tung, Poppy Oil, Nut Oil, Sunflower Oil, tobacco seeds, Perilla, etc.

Composition/Ingredients of Paint: Thinner/Solvent/Diluents

  • It is a solvent that is added to paint in order to increase fluidity.
  • It makes the surface smooth and easy to flow.
  • Reduce the consistency to the desired limit.
  • Aids penetration into porous surfaces.
  • Examples of Thinner are Turpentine, Naphtha, Sprit, Petroleum, etc.


  • It provides color and opacity to the Paints.
  • Pigment should not be more than 10%.
  • The most Common Inorganic Pigment is White Titanium Dioxide Which Provides Over 70% of total pigments.
White PaintNatural Oxides, Chrome Oxides
Red ColorIron Oxide, Carmine, Vermillion
GreenChromium Oxide
YellowYellow Chrome, Ochre, Cadmium

Composition/Ingredients of Paint: Drier

  • It Increases the process of drying.
  • It acts as a catalyst for vehicles.
  • A drier absorbs oxygen from the air and transfer it to the linseed oil which in turn gets hardened.
  • The maximum Percentage of drier in Paint is 10% of Base.
  • Examples of Driers are Litharge, Lead acetate, manganese oxide, Zinc Sulphate, etc.
  • If it used in excess amount then decreases the elasticity of paint that leads to flaking.

Inert filler/Adulterant/Extender

  • It is a less expensive pigment added in paint.
  • Inert Pigments are also known as Fillers or Extenders.
  • It decreases the cost and increases the volume of the paint film.
  • The Quantity of Inert filler shall 25% of the Base.
  • Increases the weight of the paint and enhances its durability.
  • It also improves the mechanical properties.
  • Commonly used Inert Materials are Lithopone, Silica Powder, Aluminum Silicate, barites (barium sulphate (Baso4), Gypsum, etc..


  • It is used to improve antifreeze properties.
  • It Controls foaming and skinning.
  • Enhances the pigment stability.
  • Moreover, Additives are used to enhance the color opacity, pigment dispersion, and mattness, etc.

To Know More About the Paint, Please go through this Code: IS 2395-1 (1994)

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