Types of Wall- Wall is defined as the superstructure elements that are built to divides the various rooms of the buildings. It is used for security purposes also. According to their functions wall is either a load-bearing structure or a non-load-bearing structure. It provides security, privacy, and protection against weather effects.
Following are the types of wall generally used in modern construction
- Load Bearing Wall
- Partition wall
- Brick masonry Wall
- Course rubble stone masonry wall
- Retaining wall
- Curtain wall
- Parapet wall
- Shear wall
- Drop wall
- Compound or Boundary wall
- Precast wall
Load Bearing Wall
This wall is designed to transfer the load from wall to Beam, Beam to column, column to foundation, and from foundation to soil. Suppose the beam and column are not used in the structure then load transfer from slab to wall and walls to the foundation. So these types of walls are called load-bearing walls. All the structures rest on this load-bearing wall.
Salient Features of Load Bearing Walls:
- Minimum thickness of load bearing wall = 200 mm
- Slenderness ration should not be more than 27.
- Slenderness ration is the ration of effective length or effective height to thickness.
The Walls which divides one room into another room is called a partition wall.
Salient features of partition walls:
- This partition wall rests on floors.
- This partition wall doesn’t subject the load from floor and roof.
- It carries self weight only.
- It requires less materials
- These walls are thin as compared to load bearing wall.
The wall which is constructed with bricks is called a Brick masonry wall. It increases the weight of the structure as compared to AAC blocks.
Silent features of Masonry Walls
- Thickness of wall is 5 inch or 9 inch.
- For single brick wall, the thickness wall is 5 inch.
- For two Brick masonry, the thick wall is 9 inch.
- Unit weight of brick is 1900 kg / m3
Course rubble stone masonry wall
The wall which is constructed with stones of irregulars sizes and shapes is called Rubble masonry. In a masonry wall, stones are laid in courses, the height of each course being not less than 150 mm or more than 300 mm. face stones are hammer-dressed on all beds and joints so as to give them an approximately rectangular shape.
Silent Features of Course rubble masonry wall
- In this rubble masonry wall, consumption of mortar is more.
- Course rubble masonry is used for the construction of public and residential building.
- Uncoursed rubble masonry is used for the construction of foundations, compound wall etc.
This wall which is retained the soil mass and land sliding after earthwork excavation on site.
It is made up of concrete blocks, timbers. This wall retained the lateral pressure of soils. The movement of the wall signifies the instability of the wall.
The wall which is constructed with glass, aluminum, or steel, etc. is called a Curtain Wall. This Wall allows the light into the building. Curtain Wall made with lightweight materials and reduces construction cost.
This type of wall is constructed on the top roof of the building. This wall is constructed for safety purposes. The minimum height of the parapet wall is 1 m and the maximum height is 1.5 m.
This Shear wall is generally constructed around the water sump, lift pit, or staircase. This Wall is used to retain the soil. It resists water pressure, soil pressure, lateral forces (Both Earthquake and wind forces).
Non Load Bearing wall or Drop wall
This doesn’t bear any kind of load into the structure. This wall is very thin of having a thickness of 1 inch to 2 inches. This wall is constructed with Chicken wire mesh and cement and mortar plaster. In India, chicken wire mesh is called (kabutar jail).
This type of wall that is constructed around the Built-up area with some setback distance is called a Boundary Wall. The minimum height of the boundary wall is 1 m and the maximum height is 1. 5 m.
The wall is already made in industry and bring it into the construction site and installed on-site is called a precast wall. It increases the speed of the construction process and required less manpower.