The function of Different types of cement and their advantage and Disadvantage

Types of Cement

  1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC).
  2. Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC).
  3. Rapid Hardening Cement (RHC).
  4. Extra Rapid Hardening cement
  5. High Alumina cement.
  6. Sulfate Resisting Portland cement.
  7. Portland slag cement.
  8. Super Sulphated Portland Cement.
  9. Low heat Portland cement.

So let’s start…

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)

Cement is a construction material that has cohesive and adhesive properties in the availability of water. Joseph Apsdin of Uk is the First person who invent Cement in 1824. He named the cement i.e. Portland cement because the natural stone that occurs for the manufacturing of cement is from the Place called Portland of England.

Classification of OPC on the basis of Compressive strength

Ordinary Portland cement is classified into three grades;

        OPC Grade – 33

        OPC Grade – 43

        OPC Grade – 53

IS Code used for Different Grades of Cement.

        OPC Grade – 33 (IS: 269-1989)

        OPC Grade – 43 (IS: 8112 -1989)

        OPC Grade – 53 (IS: 12269-1987)

Physical Properties of various Grades of Ordinary Portland cement

Types of CementGrade 33Grade 43Grade 53
Physical properties   
Compressive strength(N/mm2)   
3 – day162327
7 – day 223337
28 – day334353
    
Fineness   
Minimum specific surface (Blaine’s air permeability method, m2/Kg)225225225  
    
Setting time(Minutes)   
Initial setting time303030
Final setting time600600600
    
Soundness(mm)   
Le-Chatelier test (mm), max101010

Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC)

How Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) is manufacture?

PPC is manufacture either by grinding with Ordinary Portland cement clinker, gypsum, and pozzolana such as fly, etc. The proportion of fly ash used as pozzolana may range from 15% to 35% by weight of cement.

        PPC= OPC clinker + Gypsum + Fly ash (15-35% by wt. of cement).

IS codes used for Portland Pozzolana cement (IS: 1489-91, Part 1)

Physical Properties of Portland Pozzolana cement (PPC)

Types of CementPPC (IS:1489-91, Part1
Physical Properties 
Compressive strength 
3- day16
7- day22
28-day33
  
Fineness 
Minimum specific surface (Blain’s air permeability, m2/kg)300
  
Setting time (minutes) 
Initial setting time30
Final setting time600
  
Soundness (mm) 
Le Chatelier test (mm), maximum10

Rapid Hardening cement (RHC)

Important points to be remember

  • Rapid hardening cement is an ordinary Portland cement which has more Dicalcium silicate (C2S) and less Tricalcium silicate (C3S).
  • 1 day Strength of Rapid hardening cement is equal to 3 days strength of Ordinary Portland cement of having the same water-cement ratio.
  • 3 days strength of Rapid hardening cement is similar to 7 days strength of Ordinary Portland cement of having the same water-cement ratio.
  • The Cost of RHC is about 10% more than the ordinary Portland cement.
  • The Initial setting time of cement is 30 minutes and the final setting time is 10 hours.
  • 1 day and 3 days compressive strength of Rapid Hardening cement are 16 KN/mm2 and 27.5 N/mm2 respectively.

Applications

  • It is used for easy removal of formwork.
  • RHC is used for Road construction for easy accessibility of Traffic.
  • Used for manufacturing of precast slabs, posts, and electric poles.

Note: This cement is not used for mass concreting because of large quantity of heat of hydration, the temperature inside the concrete increases which leads the formation of cracking.

Extra Rapid hardening cement (ERHC)

Important points to be Remember

  • Extra Rapid hardening cement is manufactured by adding (not more than 3% calcium chloride) in rapid hardening cement.
  • The strength of Extra Rapid Hardening cement is 25% more than Ordinary Portland cement.

Applications

  • It is used for cold weather concreting, repair work.

High Alumina Cement

Important points to remember

  • High Alumina cement is manufactured which consists of Bauxite (40%   Alumina content), Limes(40%), Iron oxide (15%) with a little % of ferric oxide, and silica, magnesia, etc ground finely at a very high temperature.
  • Calcium Aluminate (Al2O3. CaO) is responsible for Rapid hardening.
  • 1-day strength High Alumina cement is 30N/mm2 is equal to 28 days strength of OPC.

Applications

  • It is suitable for the sea, underwater.
  • It is used for the construction of precast members.
  • It is not used for cold regions.
  •  It is not suitable for mass concreting because of the high heat of hydration which causes cracking.
  • This cement is not used in a place where the temperature exceeds 180c.

Sulphated Resisting Portland cement (SRPC)

Important points to remember

  • This cement has very low Tricalcium  Aluminate (C3A) and the rest of the properties is the same as ordinary Portland cement.
  • Initial Setting time of SRPC is 30 minutes and the final setting time of sulfated resisting Portland cement is 600 minutes.
  • 3Days, 7 days, and 28 days of Compressive strength of SRPC of cubes are 10 N/mm2, 16 N/mm2, and 33 N/mm2 respectively.

Applications

  • It is used to do concreting in seawater, coastal area, and marshy lands.
  • It is not used the place where temperature below 400c.

Super-Sulphated Portland cement

Important points to remember

  • This cement is manufactured by mixing of 80-85% Ground granulated furnace slag with 15 % of CaSo4 and 5% of Portland cement clinker.
  • In SSPC cement, the amount of C3A is limited to less than 3.5%.

Applications

  • This cement is not used in construction which is exposed to freezing and thawing.
  • Used in seawater concreting, high concentration of sulphate found in soil.

Low heat cement (LHC)

Important points to remember

  • Less amount of heat of hydration is liberated during the reaction with water.
  • The amount of Dicalcium Silicate is twice of Ordinary Portland cement.
  • C4AlFe is also increased one and one- half times.
  • The amount of C3S and C3Al is reduced by 50%.
  • This cement is used in Mass concreting such as Dams, Raft foundation, Raft slabs, Hydraulic structures.

Portland Slag Cement (PSC)

Important points to remember

  • PSC is manufactured by mixing (Cement clinker + Gypsum +Granulated Blast furnace slab).
  • Amount of Slag mix (25-65%) which is a by-product of the manufacturing of pig Iron, Ferrous metal).
  • Slag is a mixture of lime, Silica, and Alumina).
  • It is used in all places where OPC used due to low heat of hydration and can be used in mass concreting like Dams, Raft slab, etc.

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