### What is Plinth Beam I Structural Advantage of Providing Plinth Beam I Ideal height of Plinth Beam

What is plinth Beam ? A reinforced concrete Beam which is provided either below, above, or at ground level is known as plinth beam. It differentiates superstructure and substructure levels. It connects all the columns of the structure that helps to resist the earthquake forces. Why Plinth Beam is Provided / Structural Benefits of Providing Plinth Beam The Structural benefits of providing Plinth Beam are as follows: 1. It Prevents differential settlement of Buildings All the loads of superstructure act on the plinth beam which is uniformly distributed to the soil that prevents the building from the settlement. If the…

### Bricks: Properties Composition and Composition of Good Quality of Bricks

Bricks are one of the building material which is used to construct the wall, foundation, etc. It is widely used at present in Reinforced concrete structures because of its good compressive strength, durability, low cost, and availability, etc. It is manufactured by molding clay in rectangular blocks of uniform size and kept for drying and in the end, burnt all the blocks. Standard Size of Modular Bricks without mortar = 190 mm x 90 mm x 90 mm. Size of Modular bricks with 10 mm thick mortar = 200 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm. Properties/ Characteristics of Good…

### Quantity of Cement, Sand, Aggregate, and water in 1 cum Concrete Work

Well, this is the fundamentals things of Building Estimation that every civil Engineer should go through it. Concrete comprises cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, and water in mix proportion. In this article, I have explained the quick method to calculate the quantity of all ingredients of concrete. Let’s calculate… Note:  for Concrete work: Dry volume =wet volume x 1.54              For mortar work    : Dry Volume = wet volume x 1.33 Consider, Grade of concrete (M 15) =1:2:4 Where 1= Part of cement, 2 = Part of sand, 4 = Parts of aggregates Total ratio = 1+2+4 =7 Volume of…

### 12 Important Points to Remember For Civil Engineer About Cement

Raw material used for manufacturing of cement    Limestone (Caco3)    Sand (Sio2)    Stale clay (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3) Chemical Composition    Oxide Compound (in percentage) Lime (Cao): 60-65% Silica (SiO2): 17-25 % Alumina (Al2O3): 3-8% Iron (Fe2O3): 3- 8% Magnesia (MgO): 0.5-4%      Baogue Compound (in percentage   Tricalcium Silicate: 25-40% Dia calcium Silicate: 25-40%  Tricalcium Silicate: 5-11%  Tetra calcium Alumina Ferrite: 8-14% Functions of Oxide compound Lime (Cao): strength & soundness. Silica (Sio2): strength. Alumina (Al2O3): Quick setting Iron Oxide (Fe2O3): Color to cement. Function of Baogue Compound Calcium Silicate (C3S): Early strength Diacalcium Silicate (C2S): Slow heat…

### Isolated footing: Design Steps as per IS 456-2000, Types, Advantage, Shape.

Design of Isolated footing as per IS 456-2000. Types of Isolated footing. Shape of Isolated footing.

### Aggregates: Properties of Good Quality of Coarse Aggregates

Characteristics of Good Quality of Coarse Aggregates. Shape of Aggregates, Types of Aggregates. Grading of Coarse Aggregates.

### Sand: Types of Sand, Properties of Good Quality of Sand

What is sand? Types of Sand on the basis of Source, Geological origin, Sieve analysis. Sand is a granular material that occurs from the disintegration of rocks having a particle size smaller than gravel but having a higher size than silt and used as a construction material for the preparation of concrete, mortar, etc. Types of Sand on the basis of source There is a different type of sand that is used for construction work. Few are explained below: Pit Sand It is obtained by forming pits into soils from quarries. Fine Aggregate is free from salts and it is…

### The function of Different types of cement and their advantage and Disadvantage

Function, Advantage and Disadvantage of OPC, PPC, Low heat Cement, Rapid Hardening Cement,High Alumina, etc

### Cement: Raw Material, History, Chemical Composition, Functions of Compound.

Content outline Introduction to Cement and its history. Raw Material. Chemical components Chemical composition (Oxide compound and Bogue compound). The function of Oxide compound. The function of Bogue compound. What is Cement? Cement is a construction material that has cohesive and adhesive properties in the availability of water. Joseph Apsdin of Uk is a First person who invent Cement in 1824 A.D. He named the cement i.e. Portland cement because the natural stone that occurs for the manufacturing of cement is from the Place called Portland of England. Raw Material used in Cement a)  Limestone (Caco3 b) Sand (Sio2) c).…

### Isolated Footing – Complete Quantity Calculation of Excavation, Brick Soling, PCC Work, RCC Work, Neck Column, and Back Filling.

Content Outline What is Isolated Footing? Step by Step process of Quantity calculation of isolated footing. Volume of Excavation. Area of Flat Brick soling. Volume of PCC work. Volume of Footing. Volume of Neck Column. Volume of back filling. What is Footing? A footing that is provided under an individual column is known as isolated footing.  The isolated footing is used to carry a load of superstructure through the Reinforced concrete column and transfer to the soil. It is one of the most economical footings as compared to other types of footing. It is because reinforcement provided in this footing…