10 Different Types of Stone used in Building

Types of Stone: In this article, you will learn the different types of Stone and their Applications, Compressive Strength, and other Properties.

1. Chalk

                It is pure white limestone and easy to form a powder. It is a sedimentary type of work. Chalk is used as a material for the manufacturing of Portland cement.

2. Basalt and Trap

                There are three types of Igneous rock i.e. Intrusive, Hypabyssal, and extrusive rock. A basalt and Trap rock comes under an extrusive rock. It is hard and tough in nature. The compressive strength of   Basalt and Trap range from 1530 to 1890 kg/cm2. It is used in road metal works, masonry, and foundation work paving work.

3. Gneiss

Types of Stone: Gneiss is a mixture of Quartz and felspar. It is used in rough work such as stone masonry work, road metal, and paving work. It is a metamorphic rock. The compressive strength of Gneiss is 2100 kg/cm2. It is split into slab pieces and becomes easy to work. Its specific gravity is 2.69.

4. Granite

Granite is the composition of Quartz, feldspar, and mica. It is used in flooring work, walls, bridge piers, columns, and road metal ballast work. It is an igneous type of rock. The color of granite is brown, green, grey, or pink. It has high strength and is durable in nature. It is hard and highly resistant to scratch. The compressive strength of granite varies from 770 to 1300 kg/cm2. It is expensive than Marble and not suitable for carving work. The specific gravity of granite ranges from 2.6 to 2.7. It is available in different colors on market. It is obtained from Monominerallic rock.

5. Laterite

It is a metamorphic rock. It is porous and spongy in nature. The compressive strength of Laterite varies from 18 to 32 kg/cm2. It is used in road metalwork. The main function of Laterite is for rough stone masonry work.

6. Limestone

It is a sedimentary rock. It is used in flooring work, wall work. Limestone is used to manufacture lime in blast furnaces etc. It consists of carbonate of lime. Its compressive strength is 5.5 kg/cm2. The specific gravity of limestone varies from 2 to 2.75 kg/cm2.

7. Marble

Marble is Metamorphic Rock. It is used in flooring work in carpet area, staircase, the face of the wall, etc. It is used as Ornamental work. Marble can take a good polish and is available in different colors. It can also be used in carving work. Its compressive strength is 720 kg/cm2. It is less expensive than marble.

8. Sandstone

It is used in facing work, columns, flooring work, road metal, ornamental work, etc.  Sandstone is the composition of Quartz, lime silica. It consists of quartz and other materials. It is available in different colors. . Its compressive strength is 650 kg/cm2. The specific gravity of limestone varies from 2.65 to 2.95 kg/cm2.

9. Slate

It is Black in color and divided along natural bedding planes; non-absorbent. The Application of slate is for roofing work, damp roof course, etc. Its compressive strength is 770 to 2110 kg/cm2. The specific gravity of limestone varies from 2.89 kg/cm2.

10. Quartzite

Quartzite is the most weather resisting rock. It is hard, brittle, crystalline, and difficult to work and dress. It is a metamorphic rock.  Quartzite is used in retaining walls, road metal, concrete aggregate, pitching, rubble masonry work, etc.

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